The total area and number of xylem rays and vessels from tangential and cross sections of twigs of 12 sugar maples (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were determined by the use of an image-analyzing computer. A nested analysis of variance indicated that xylem rays of trees of high sap and sugar yield are more numerous and larger than the rays of other sugar maples. The total area and number of xylem vessels were about the same in all 12 trees.
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The sugar concentrations and the volume yields of Acer saccharum Marsh. sap from trees with single tapholes both show large variations from year to year and during sap flow seasons. Daily measurements of sugar concentration and volume yield from 29 trees for 18 years show consistent patterns. High sugar concentrations and high volume yields are characteristic of some trees; lower sugar concentrations and smaller volume yields are characteristic of other trees. A regression analysis shows a highly significant relationship between sugar concentration and volume yield in individual trees.