Showing 1 – 10 of 354 resources

Tapping Walnut Trees: Making Walnut Syrup for Fun or Profit

Everyone knows you can tap maple trees, boil down the sap and make maple syrup. Maple syrup on pancakes is a classic American breakfast. However, few people know that the same is true for other select species of trees. People in the sub-artic have for years tapped birch trees, both boiling the sap to make a sweet syrup and consuming it raw as a health drink. Walnut trees are on that list of those select other species. Members of the Juglans genus, black walnut (Juglans nigra), white walnut or butternut (J. cinerea) and English walnut (J. regia) have all been tapped for syrup production. This walnut syrup primer will get you on either the commercial or the hobbyist path.

Mappleau: A Maple Liqueur

Mappleau (pronounced “mah-ploh”) is a maple-derived liqueur made from distilled maple wine and sweetened with pure maple syrup. Its manufacturing process and its namesake are inspired by Pommeau, a barrel-aged French liqueur made from fresh apple cider and apple brandy (hard cider that has been distilled). There are a few different production methods that achieve different flavor profiles. For oak-influence, the distilled maple wine, i.e., maple brandy, can be back sweetened with barrel-aged maple syrup, and/or the sweet Mappleau can be aged in various types of barrels (e.g., new oak, bourbon, wine, brandy, etc.). Alternatively, unoaked syrup can be used for back sweetening for a lighter flavor profile, and the Mappleau can be aged in a neutral vessel (e.g., stainless steel).

Foresters’ Approach to Sugarbush Management in the Northeast U.S.

This research is focused on a first of its kind survey of professional foresters with the goal of not only understanding the technical approaches foresters use when working in sugarbushes, but also how the surveyed foresters view sugarbush management compared to managing stands for other forest products.

North American Maple Syrup Producers Manual, 3rd Ed.

Since 1958 the North American Maple Syrup Producers Manual has served as a basic reference source for the production of pure maple products. This 2022 edition provides up-to-date, science-based information and recommendations relating to all aspects of the industry. The guidelines presented will help users ranging from the hobby and beginning producer level to those well-established in the industry. In addition, the information herein will benefit foresters, land managers, Extension and outreach personnel, and others aiming to provide assistance to those in the maple industry. Numerous photographs, tables, a glossary and hyperlinks to selected source materials are included.

This publication is also available in print, at

Exudation Pressure in Maple Trees: Comparing Simulations with Experiments

Exudation is the process whereby trees can generate a large positive pressure in stems or roots during months when the tree is leafless and mostly dormant and temperatures fluctuate above and below freezing. This article aims to provide an update on recent modelling efforts
in combination with experimental measurements from red/sugar maple trees at the University of Vermont Proctor Maple Research Center that validate the model results.

Maple Sports Drink Fills a Niche in Performance Beverage Market

The Cornell Maple Program has been working on developing athletics-oriented maple products for several years. Our latest work has led to a “maple sports drink,” a hydrating, nourishing electrolyte-replacement beverage that meets the same nutritional standards as Gatorade and Powerade.

Maximizing production through sustainable tapping

Optimal syrup production starts at the tree, and requires thinking beyond the current season. This session focuses on tapping practices that both maximize yield and ensure long-term sustainability of your sugarbush. Topics include timing of tapping, taphole placement, taphole sanitation, and sap collection.

Sweet Talk: All Things Maple

The Cornell Maple Program presents Sweet Talk, with hosts, co-directors of CMP, Aaron Wightman and Adam Wild. Your hosts will present the latest research, news, and trends in the maple industry, with various guests including other maple researchers, industry experts, and local sugarmakers.

Maple syrup production from sap preconcentrated to ultra high °Brix by membrane technology: Composition and properties

Maple syrup is produced typically from maple sap concentrated by nanofiltration or reverse osmosis at a moderate °Brix level ranging from 6 to 16 °Brix followed by heat evaporation. Recently, new membrane processes have been developed to concentrate maple sap to ultra-high °Brix reaching up to 40 °Brix. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of this ultra-high concentration of sap on the composition, the properties and the cost of corresponding maple syrup. Results showed some differences in chemical composition and properties between syrups produced from low and ultra-high concentration of sap. Syrups produced from ultra-high °Brix concentrated sap had lower concentrations of potassium and polyphenols, a lighter color and distinctive flavor. This was mainly observed when no modification were applied to the heating pattern in the evaporator pans. However, syrups produced by modulation of the heating pattern in the evaporator had color, flavor and taste similar to control syrups. These results demonstrate that syrups with comparable sensory properties can be obtained from low and ultra-high concentrated sap by adjusting the heating time depending on the initial °Brix. The concentration process to ultra high °Brix allows for a concomitant reduction of the production costs and a modulation of syrup quality.