This site presents ideas, current research, and new sources of information related to the history of the production and use of maple syrup and maple sugar in North America. The purpose of this site is not to be the definitive account tracing the history of maple syrup and sugar, or telling the maple story, although at times it will share old and new contributions to maple history. Rather, the focus is on the study and doing of maple syrup related history. The site will primarily feature topics and research of interest to the siteÕs creator, but on occassion the site may feature guest contributors.
Showing 1 – 10 of 283 resources
Sap flow and stem pressure in sugar maples during winter dormancy depend on the expansion and contraction of gas bubbles. These gas bubbles are primarily located in the libriform fibers of wood tissues, not in the xylem vessels. Though there are gas bubbles (embolisms) in the xylem vessels, these bubbles are not the dominant drivers of stem pressurization.
Work done at the Uihlein Maple Research Forest in Lake Placid during the 2018 and 2019 maple syrup season looked at timing of tapping to best capture the most amount of sap. During this study it was found that trees tapped in late March did not yield as much syrup since they missed early sap runs. Trees tapped in January were able to capture early season sap runs but yield diminished slightly near the end of the season due to microbial plugging.
Increasing the yield of sap from maple trees is the goal of most maple producers. While getting there isnÕt a matter of one simple thing, by following best management practices and paying attention to detail it is possible to increase sap yields, often quite dramatically.
Tapping walnut trees for sap collection and syrup production provides a syrup producer the opportunity to tap into the new, growing, and potentially lucrative specialty tree syrup market. The bulk price for walnut syrup in West Virginia this past season ranged from $150-$250/gallon, with retail sale prices topping $500/gallon (Tonoloway Farm, 2020). To get there, potential walnut syrup producers need to know how and when to tap their trees to maximize sap production. During the 2020 sap flow season, Future Generations University, with a grant from the NE SARE program, conducted studies looking at the application of vacuum, spout design, tapping procedures, and the timing of sap flow in walnut trees. This paper presents part of the findings of that work.
Details a study of 3/16″ tubing conducted in West Virginia.
As the maple industry has grown, so too has the use of plastic sap tubing. Solutions are needed to help producers dispose of tubing when it is past its useful life, in ways that ensure it is not merely ending up in landfills.
Although several previous studies have examined syrup darkening in different retail containers, packers and producers sometimes question the effectiveness of an oxygen-barrier in reducing the rate of color change. Two studies were performed by the University of Vermont (UVM) Proctor Maple Research Center (PMRC) in 2018 and 2019 to compare the rate of color (LT) change in maple syrup in uncoated and XL-coated retail plastic containers.
There are many ways a partnership between maple producers and brewers could be beneficial. The goal of this project was to focus on maple-flavored beer. Within this scope, there are many options including maple extract, fenugreek, maple syrup and maple sugar. We focused on the use of fenugreek, maple syrup and maple sugar for aroma and flavoring in this experiment.
A simple colorimetric test detects off-flavour profiles ofmaple syrups inminutes, which are detectable by the naked eye. As flavour profiles are due to complex mixtures of molecules, the test uses nonspecific interactions for analysing the aggregation and color change of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) induced by the different organic molecules contained in off-flavour maple syrup. The test was optimal with 13 nm citrate-capped AuNPs reacting 1 : 1 with pure maple syrup diluted 10 times. Under these conditions, normal flavour maple syrups did not react and the solution remained red, while off-flavoured maple syrups aggregated the AuNPs and the solution turned blue. Different classes of molecules were then tested to evaluate the types of compounds typically found in maple syrups reacting in the test, showing that sulfur- and amine-containing amino acids and aromatic amines caused aggregation of the AuNPs. The test was validated with 1818 maple syrup samples from the 2018 harvest in Quebec and 98% of the off-flavoured maple syrups were positively identified against the standard taste test. Preliminary tests were performed on site in maple sugar shacks to validate the applicability of the test on the production site.