The timing and duration of budbreak of forest trees may be affected by biotic and abiotic factors. This manual provides a visual method for monitoring bud development of mature trees of sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marsh., from the ground. A spotting scope with a 15-45x zoom lens was used for bud rating. The user is supplied with close-up photographs and a brief description of each bud stage. Sample data sheets are also provided. This protocol is currently used in the Vermont Forest Health Monitoring Program.
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Sapstreak disease is a potentially serious problem of sugarbushes and forest stands. It is caused by the fungus Ceratocystis virescens, which invades sapwood of roots and bases of stems through wounds created during logging, saphauling, or other activities. This report describes the results of observations and experiments to learn more about the patterns of disease development and the factors that affect them, within individual trees and within representative forests and sugarbushes.