Through the increased combustion of fossil fuels, humans have dramatically increased pollutant additions of sulfur and nitrogen into the atmosphere wher eit combines with water to form sulfuric and nitric acids, creating acid rain. This article investigates the impact of this issue on sugarbush health.
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Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees exhibit seasonal patterns of production, accumulation, and utilization of nonstructural carbohydrates that are closely correlated with phenological events and (or) physiological processes. The simultaneous seasonal patterns of both reserve and soluble carbohydrates in the leaves, twigs, branches, and trunks of healthy mature sugar maple trees were characterized. The concentrations of starch and soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, xylose, raffinose, and stachyose) were determined.
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is a keystone species in the forests of the northeastern and midwestern United States and eastern Canada. Its sustained health is an important issue in both managed and unmanaged forests. While sugar maple generally is healthy throughout its range, decline disease of sugar maple has occurred sporadically during the pastfour decades; thus, it is important to understand the abiotic and biotic factors contributing to sugar maple health.
Sugar maple height-diameter and age-diameter relationships are explored in abalanced uneven-aged northern hardwood stand in central New York.
Sapstreak disease is a potentially serious problem of sugarbushes and forest stands. It is caused by the fungus Ceratocystis virescens, which invades sapwood of roots and bases of stems through wounds created during logging, saphauling, or other activities. This report describes the results of observations and experiments to learn more about the patterns of disease development and the factors that affect them, within individual trees and within representative forests and sugarbushes.
To properly classify or grade logs or trees, one must be able to correctly identify indicators and assess the effect of the underlying defect on possible end products. This guide assists the individual in identifying the surface defect indicator and shows the progressive stages of the defect throughout its development for sugar maple. Eleven types of external defect indicators and associated defects that are particularly difficult to evaluate are illustrated and described.
Height and diameter measurements were taken for silver, sugar and Norway maple street trees in Rochester and Syracuse, New York.
Many pests and other stresses affect maple trees growing in a sugarbush. Some pests can markedly reduce sap quantity; others, although conspicuous, are not important. Stresses can result from activities by people and from natural phenomena. Recognizing problems and understanding the factors that contribute to their occurrence, development, and significance are necessary to maintain tree health. This report brings together current information on the living agents and nonliving factors that can cause problems in sugarbushes. Insects, diseases, improper forest stand management, and unwise sugaring practices are illustrated. and ways to prevent or reduce their effects are described.
In March and April 1983, 289 and 196 young grafted sugar maple trees were tapped and evaluated for sap-sugar content. In April, sap was collected from taps both above and below the graft union. Diameter of all tapped trees at 18 inches above the ground was measured. Analysis of the data revealed that: (1) trees selected for high sugar yield cannot be reproduced by grafting on rootstock of unknown but varying sugar content without encountering large fluctuations in sap sweetness of the trees produced; (2) diameter is not correlated with sap sweetness of young grafted trees; (3) numerous sap-sugar readings over time may be necessary to identify the sap sugar characteristics of a candidate sweet tree; and (4) the cause of the variation in sap-sugar content of trees over time needs to be investigated more fully.
Our objectives were to develop time series of maple production costs and to observe the effects of changing technology, fuel price, interest rate, and sap sugar content on production cost. In addition, the relationships between major production cost items were examined.