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Innovations in Maple Sap Collection Systems: Spouts

Over the past five years we have examined several different approaches to reducing the restriction in sap flow from shallow tree rings in an attempt to increase sap yield and sugar content of collected sap. After exploratory research in 2018 and 2019, we settled upon a basic design starting in 2020 that in continued testing has proved successful. The two main features of this new spout include a shorter barrel and barbs.

3/16 inch Tubing with Check Valves Trial

In a normal sap flow event, trees exude sap during the above freezing period and replenish that lost water by √ísucking√ď it up from the roots during the below freezing period. If on a tubing system, during this negative pressure period they tend to draw sap back into the tree from the dropline. Sap, once it enters the droplines, is quickly contaminated with microbes. When they are drawn back into the tree, tap hole closure is initiated. The problem is compounded in 3/16- inch tubing because, unlike 5/16-inch tubing, the smaller diameter collection tube remains full of sap. A Cornell study found that up to 12 feet of sap in a 3/16-inch tube can be drawn back into the tree during this recharge time. CV spouts are one proven method of limiting this drawback with 5/16 inch tubing. The question was: will they also be effective with 3/16-inch tubing that is full of sap?