We had two objectives in the study of sugar maples which showed signs of decline and stress on a roadside where deicing salt was used in the winter. One goal was to determine if tree stress is related to the levels offsodium and chloride in their sap and in the groundwater and soil around their roots; and, if so, to develop methodology approved by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) that would allow any laboratory to use a standard method to assess maple tree decline due to sodium and chloride effect. The second goal was to evaluate the quality of the syrup processed from sap aseptically collected from maples in decline. We are updating here the later objective of the project that is of interest to the sugar maple producers.
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The sugar concentrations and the volume yields of Acer saccharum Marsh. sap from trees with single tapholes both show large variations from year to year and during sap flow seasons. Daily measurements of sugar concentration and volume yield from 29 trees for 18 years show consistent patterns. High sugar concentrations and high volume yields are characteristic of some trees; lower sugar concentrations and smaller volume yields are characteristic of other trees. A regression analysis shows a highly significant relationship between sugar concentration and volume yield in individual trees.
A step-by step guide for small-scale, beginning sugarmaking.
The advent of plastic tubing systems to collect sap has eliminated several problems associated with the traditional bucket system. However, plastic tubing systems also present some problems of their own. Sap quality problems arise if the lines sag and the sap lingers within the tubings or the large conduits. In addition, the warming effect of the sun increases the tem perature within the tubing to optimum levels for microbial growth and sap flow may decrease because of “organic buildup” on the internal tubing walls. This buildup is a result of the adhesion of microorganisms to the tubing walls.
Higher and wider discoloration, compartmentalisation and decay in maple wood by the use of the PFA pellet restricts the healthy sapwood areas and diminishes translocation of sap and nutrients. Furthermore, technological advances for better sanitation in sap collection and storage presently in use by the maple industry, tested by research to be safe for maple tree health and syrup quality, have made the use of the PFA pellet unnecessary.
Exudation is the process whereby trees can generate a large positive pressure in stems or roots during months when the tree is leafless and mostly dormant and temperatures fluctuate above and below freezing. This article aims to provide an update on recent modelling efforts
in combination with experimental measurements from red/sugar maple trees at the University of Vermont Proctor Maple Research Center that validate the model results.
We found significant populations of snake worms devouring the organic matter, causing soil conditions that discouraged growth of understory native plant species. We are looking at their distribution in maple stands throughout the region relative to forest management practices, and assessing their impact on understory diversity, maple regeneration and various soil characteristics.
On May 7th, 2019 the first ever FFA Maple Career Development Event (CDE) was held at Shelburne Farms in Shelburne, Vermont. A CDE is a competition that is designed to test skill development and prepare students for careers in the particular area of focus. CDEs are held for many different disciplines such as forestry, tractor driving, and dairy handling. The CDE’s are often used by high school career and technical centers as a way to assess students’ knowledge and compare results between schools that are teaching similar material. Additionally, CDE’s serve as a way for students to build their credentials, with students often including their CDE experience on their resumes.
This manual was developed primarily for use by Vermont Career and Technical Center educators and students. It can be used as a reference as students learn about aspects of sugarbush management and syrup production. Biology, chemistry, math, history, and the culture of maple syrup making can enrich the educational experience as well as provide technical skills for students interested in working in the maple industry. The overall goal of the manual is to create consistency in the sugaring techniques that are taught throughout Vermont and as a guide to prepare students for the Vermont Maple Career Development Event. This manual can also be a valuable resource for anyone interested in sugaring, from the back-yard sugar maker to a new employee joining an established maple syrup producer.
Research on metabolism off-flavor in maple syrup at the University of Vermont Proctor Maple Research and Extension Center (PMREC) had two main objectives. The first was to identify the primary compound(s) responsible for metabolism off-flavor in maple syrup. Once the responsible compound or compounds were identified, measures to reduce or remove the off-flavor from finished maple syrup could be investigated. Thus, the second main objective was to determine whether a technique could be found that maple producers and packers might employ to effectively remediate the flavor, and thereby increase the economic value, of metabolized maple syrup.