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A Summary of Regulations Governing Maple Syrup Production in Wisconsin

Pure Maple Syrup production in Wisconsin is regulated primarily by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP). This document assembles the various components of information to assist veteran and new producers of maple syrup in Wisconsin with the basic federal and state regulations impacting the maple syrup industry.

Tapping Walnut Trees: Making Walnut Syrup for Fun or Profit

Everyone knows you can tap maple trees, boil down the sap and make maple syrup. Maple syrup on pancakes is a classic American breakfast. However, few people know that the same is true for other select species of trees. People in the sub-artic have for years tapped birch trees, both boiling the sap to make a sweet syrup and consuming it raw as a health drink. Walnut trees are on that list of those select other species. Members of the Juglans genus, black walnut (Juglans nigra), white walnut or butternut (J. cinerea) and English walnut (J. regia) have all been tapped for syrup production. This walnut syrup primer will get you on either the commercial or the hobbyist path.

North American Maple Syrup Producers Manual, 3rd Ed.

Since 1958 the North American Maple Syrup Producers Manual has served as a basic reference source for the production of pure maple products. This 2022 edition provides up-to-date, science-based information and recommendations relating to all aspects of the industry. The guidelines presented will help users ranging from the hobby and beginning producer level to those well-established in the industry. In addition, the information herein will benefit foresters, land managers, Extension and outreach personnel, and others aiming to provide assistance to those in the maple industry. Numerous photographs, tables, a glossary and hyperlinks to selected source materials are included.

This publication is also available in print, at

Why and How to Check your Hydrometer’s Accuracy

Hydrometers are a critical tool for making high-quality, legal density maple syrup. A $20 to $30 investment in an accurate hydrometer can yield a valuable return in income for the producer. This article explains how to use and test a hydrometer for accuracy.

Measuring and Adjusting Invert Sugar in Maple Sugar

The variability of invert sugars in syrup makes it necessary to test and adjust the invert sugar levels to match the specific characteristics desired for a given confection. Testing syrup and adjusting to a proper invert sugar level can eliminate batch mfailures and help the maple producer make confections of consistent quality. For many years the use of the Clinitest tablets was suggested as the way to measure invert sugars in syrup. Now, a simple test using the common glucose meter used to monitor blood sugar can be very helpful in selecting and blending syrups to make the most consistent products. Testing syrups before they are purchased for the purpose of making confections assures you are getting syrup that will make the confections you want.

Quality control guide cards

These handy cards provide checklists for color, clarity, density, and flavor, with notes on why syrup may not measure up to standards.

Sweet Talk: All Things Maple

The Cornell Maple Program presents Sweet Talk, with hosts, co-directors of CMP, Aaron Wightman and Adam Wild. Your hosts will present the latest research, news, and trends in the maple industry, with various guests including other maple researchers, industry experts, and local sugarmakers.

Maple syrup production from sap preconcentrated to ultra high °Brix by membrane technology: Composition and properties

Maple syrup is produced typically from maple sap concentrated by nanofiltration or reverse osmosis at a moderate °Brix level ranging from 6 to 16 °Brix followed by heat evaporation. Recently, new membrane processes have been developed to concentrate maple sap to ultra-high °Brix reaching up to 40 °Brix. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of this ultra-high concentration of sap on the composition, the properties and the cost of corresponding maple syrup. Results showed some differences in chemical composition and properties between syrups produced from low and ultra-high concentration of sap. Syrups produced from ultra-high °Brix concentrated sap had lower concentrations of potassium and polyphenols, a lighter color and distinctive flavor. This was mainly observed when no modification were applied to the heating pattern in the evaporator pans. However, syrups produced by modulation of the heating pattern in the evaporator had color, flavor and taste similar to control syrups. These results demonstrate that syrups with comparable sensory properties can be obtained from low and ultra-high concentrated sap by adjusting the heating time depending on the initial °Brix. The concentration process to ultra high °Brix allows for a concomitant reduction of the production costs and a modulation of syrup quality.

Food Safety & Quality Issues in Maple

Pure maple syrup is generally considered a “low-risk” food in terms of food safety regulations and following good production practices can limit the risks even further. This presentation will cover food safety issues related to production, bottling and storage of pure maple syrup.