Maple syrup is produced typically from maple sap concentrated by nanofiltration or reverse osmosis at a moderate °Brix level ranging from 6 to 16 °Brix followed by heat evaporation. Recently, new membrane processes have been developed to concentrate maple sap to ultra-high °Brix reaching up to 40 °Brix. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of this ultra-high concentration of sap on the composition, the properties and the cost of corresponding maple syrup. Results showed some differences in chemical composition and properties between syrups produced from low and ultra-high concentration of sap. Syrups produced from ultra-high °Brix concentrated sap had lower concentrations of potassium and polyphenols, a lighter color and distinctive flavor. This was mainly observed when no modification were applied to the heating pattern in the evaporator pans. However, syrups produced by modulation of the heating pattern in the evaporator had color, flavor and taste similar to control syrups. These results demonstrate that syrups with comparable sensory properties can be obtained from low and ultra-high concentrated sap by adjusting the heating time depending on the initial °Brix. The concentration process to ultra high °Brix allows for a concomitant reduction of the production costs and a modulation of syrup quality.
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Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis are membrane concentration processes originally used by maple syrup producers to preconcentrate the sap to a moderate °Brix level (8–16 °Brix). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential of new membrane technology to concentrate maple sap to ultra-high °Brix and to investigate the effect of this concentration on the chemical composition and physical properties of final sap concentrate. Maple sap was concentrated up to 42 °Brix using two industrial membrane units. The contents of main solutes increased with the °Brix of concentrates depending on the specific rejection rate of the membranes tested. A slight and significant decrease was observed in the availability of some solutes such as K+, Mn++ and polyphenols in ultra-high-concentrated sap. However, the apparent organoleptic and physical properties of these concentrates have not been altered. According to the results of this, the new membrane process allows to produce ultra-high °Brix concentrate of maple sap with interesting properties. However, further works have to be performed on this technology to more precisely determine the highest °Brix level that will minimise the affect on chemical composition and properties of concentrated sap and the corresponding maple syrup.
Techniques used to produce maple syrup have considerably evolved over the last decades making them more efficient and economically profitable. However, these advances must respect composition and quality standards as well as authenticity of maple products. Recently, a new and improved high vacuum technology has been made available to producers to achieve higher sap yields. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the effect of this new system on the yield of sap and on the sap and syrup chemical composition.
Buddy maple syrup is characterized by an unpleasant cabbage?like flavor occurring generally toward the end of the sap harvest season. Occurrence of buddy off?flavor leads to a decrease in syrup value and economic loss for the industry. It is therefore relevant to characterize the off?flavor in order to apply corrective treatments. HS?SPME combined with GC/MS was applied to analyze volatile aroma compounds in buddy maple syrup samples. Two novel volatile sulfur compounds were found in maple syrup: dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide. A 3?alternative forced choice in ascending concentration of different buddy syrups diluted in good quality syrup was conducted in triplicate to assess buddy syrup concentration thresholds leading to detection and recognition of the off?flavor by 16 panelists while monitoring volatile aroma compounds in diluted samples. Results showed that DMDS was associated with the flavor defect. The recognition threshold concentration of buddy syrup varies depending on the syrup sample and the off?flavor can be detected in syrups containing very low DMDS content. Application of a continuous heat treatment on buddy syrups for 2 hr at 104.5 ¡C led to a removal of the buddy off?flavor as well as a significant reduction in DMDS content.
Ropiness of maple syrup is a phenomenon that can occur several times in the season. The alteration known as ÒropinessÓ is characterized by a viscous, thick, slimy/jelly-like texture which, although not noticeably altering the taste, renders the product unpleasant in terms of mouthfeel. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic impact of production of ropy maple syrup in the region of Quebec, to more deeply identify and characterize bacteria associated to this type of quality defect, and to study the composition of Polysaccharides found in stringy maple syrup.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of using acid on the chemical composition and the sensory quality of syrup produced after cleaning.
In recent years isopropyl alcohol (IPA) sanitation was proposed after the sugar season to significantly reduce the microbial load and start the next sugar season with a sanitized system. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential leaching of chemical compounds found in plastic polymers used in maple sap collection system tubing.
A plastic tubing system operated under vacuum is usually used to collect sap from maple trees during spring time to produce maple syrup. This system is commonly sanitized with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) to remove microbial contamination colonizing the system during the sugar season. Questions have been raised whether IPA would contribute to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup coming from sanitized systems.
Maple syrup is a natural product free of artificial coloring or other additives. Regardless, some publications mention that maple syrup may contain sulfites. In this study, which is conducted by Center ACER in collaboration with UVM Proctor Maple Research Center, direct measurements of sulfites concentration in maple syrup samples collected during 2011 and 2012 were made.