In this article we describe the effects of fertilization and liming on sugar production in maple stands.
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This brochure is intended to help landowners and maple producers evaluate the nutrition of maple stands, and determine whether fertilization might be appropriate. There is an emphasis on learning some of the plants in your woods, as these are often valuable indicators of site quality, and are in many cases easier to interpret than chemical analyses of soil or leaves.
The amount of sap that can be extracted annually from trees for maple syrup production using current equipment and practices is more than double the typical yields achievable when current maple industry tapping guidelines were developed. The growth rates of trees tapped with these Òhigh-yieldÓ practices at 18 sites in Vermont were measured and evaluated to determine whether they were sufficient for the replenishment of conductive wood to remain at sustainable levels when current tapping guidelines are followed.
The overall objective of this work was to determine whether existing Conservative Tapping Guidelines are appropriate and likely to result in sustainable outcomes when used with sap collection practices that result in higher sap yields.
Given our extensive research experience on RO processing and flavor, and the appearance of new RO technology that could concentrate to higher levels, a shift toward this new technology seemed appropriate. Therefore after investigating various options, we entered into a partnership with Lapierre Equipment to utilize the new HyperBrix RO system at UVM PMRC. This paper describes some aspects of our first two seasons of use of this equipment. Given the state of the industry, we define Òhigh brixÓ maple sap processing as RO machines capable of producing concentrate at 30¡Brix or higher.
Analysis of the importance of slope on a variety of tubing systems.
Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of replacing droplines on sap yields. The research outlined in this article outlines several replacement strategies to allow producers to determine the cost-effectiveness of each.
The combination of potential crop losses from foam-related incidents, reductions in crop value due to off-flavors, and ultimately the many adverse effects of such a large proportion of organic syrup with off-flavors potentially being sold to consumers, underscore the need to identify or develop a certified organic defoamer for maple production that is both more effective at controlling foam than the culinary oils that are currently used, and which results in no off-flavors when used in the quantities necessary to adequately control foam. Thus, the overall objective of this project was to identify a certified organic defoamer that met these criteria.
Experiments were conducted to determine two pieces of information essential to identify practices necessary to ensure tapping trees for birch sap collection is both sustainable and profitableÑthe selection of the time to initiate tapping birch trees to obtain maximum yields, and the volume of nonconductive wood (NCW) associated with taphole wounds in birch trees. The yields obtained from various timing treatments varied between sapflow seasons, but indicate that using test tapholes to choose the appropriate time to initiate tapping is likely to result in optimum yields from birch trees. The volume of NCW associated with taphole wounds in birch trees was highly variable and generally quite large, averaging 220 times the volume of the taphole drilled, and requiring relatively high radial growth rates to maintain NCW at sustainable levels over the long-term. However, more conservative tapping practices, including reduced taphole depth and increased dropline length, as well as thinning and other stand management practices, can be used to reduce the minimum growth rates required. Producers can use this information to ensure that they use tapping practices that will result in sustainable outcomes and obtain the maximum possible sap yields from their trees.
This research was conducted to determine whether tapping below the lateral line in vacuum tubing operations results in the same quantity of sap from a taphole as normal (above the lateral line) tapping, and thus whether tapping below the lateral is a reasonable management alternative which might be employed to increase the size of the tapping band in maple sap production. It will also inform us as to any tradeoffs (reductions) in yield that might result from this approach.