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The Woody Plant Seed Manual

Planting for commercial forest production is the traditional mainstay of tree planting, but planting for wildlife food, watershed protection, urban environmental improvement, ornamental enhancement, wetland mitigation, and carbon sequestration are all on the increase. Ecosystem management, now commonly used in the management of many federal and other governmental forest lands, has decreased the use of planting to regenerate the forests and has increased the role of natural regeneration. Those who apply these practices will find this book useful also in the data on flowering and seed production.

The Work of Maple Associations

A panel discussion at the NAMSC annual meeting offered a number of suggestions for ways state and provincial associations can help their members.

Thoughts on the Season: Bruce Bascom

Overall, Bruce says he is positive and optimistic about both production and demand, estimating that both could double in the U.S. in the next decade or so. “Some people think it’s a bubble,” he says, “but I think the market is still very strong.”

Timing of defoliation and its effect on bud development, starch reserves, and sap sugar concentration in sugar maple

Sapling sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees were defoliated artificially at 10-day intervals beginning May 27 and ending August 5, 1981. Refoliation, terminal bud and shoot development, and xylem starch and sap sugar concentration were observed in defoliated and control trees. All defoliated trees refoliated, but decreasingly with later defoliation. Defoliation caused an acceleration in the rate of primordia initiation in terminal shoot apices. After early season defoliations, the developing buds in the axils of the removed leaves abscissed, but axillary and terminal buds on the refoliated terminal shoots survived through winter. In late season defoliation, most buds of refoliated shoots did not survive and the next year’s growth depended on axillary buds formed prior to defoliation. Thus, when progressing from early to late defoliations, the next year’s shoot growth depended decreasingly on the last-formed and increasingly on the first-formed portions of the previous year’s shoot. Early October starch concentration in xylem decreased with later defoliation and was nearly absent in shoots and roots of trees defoliated in late July. There was not, however, a corresponding decrease in sap sugar concentration. Mortality occurred only in late defoliated trees and was associated with starch depletion.

Treatment of Sugar Maple Sap with In-Line Ultraviolet Light

We initiated a controlled test of the effect of in-line UV light on the microorganisms in free-flowing sugar maple sap that had not been treated by PFA pellets at the taphole. We also wanted to test the effect of temperature-controlled sap storage for five intervals up to 7 days (167 h) prior to processing to syrup.

Tree Size and Maple Production

There are several important factors that affect the yield of sap from trees during the production season. One relationship that is sometimes overlooked is the one between tree size and yield. In order to develop models of tree size and yield to answer some of these questions, we measured the sap volume and sugar content from approximately fifty individuals along a wide range of sizes during the 2016 and 2017 seasons.

Tree Size Matters

In order to develop models of tree size and yield we measured the sap volume and sugar content from a wide range of tree sizes during the 2016 and 2017 seasons. This article explores the findings.