Vacuum and gravity “pull” sap down lateral lines. Friction “uses up” energy. The energy that is lost in this case is vacuum (gravity is constant). Reducing friction in the tubing system preserves energy and preserves vacuum further up the line. If making tubing larger or smoother due to cost or implementation issues, the next best way to reduce friction in tubing is to reduce turbulence, especially at fittings. This can be readily achieved through two simple modifications. The first method is to incorporate a bevel into the entrance and exit of all fittings. The second modification is to incorporate an arc where sap streams meet.